Herbert Hoover: 1931 Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union

Last week I excerpted from Herbert Hoover’s 1930 State of the Union address. This time I wanted to excerpt from the 1931 SOTU because the Credit Anstalt event had already happened, triggering retail deposit runs. Bank runs is something about which Mohamed El-Erian, the head of PIMCO, has recently expressed concerned because of the wholesale funding squeeze now ongoing in France.

What caught my eye was where Hoover says “The situation largely arises from an unjustified lack of confidence.” This seems to be an almost verbatim copy of the sentiments Federal Reserve Chairman Bernanke expressed in Minneapolis just two weeks ago.

I quote:

Even taking into account the many financial pressures they face, households seem exceptionally cautious. Indeed, readings on consumer confidence have fallen substantially in recent months as people have become more pessimistic about both economic conditions and their own financial prospects.

What Bernanke is saying is precisely what Herbert Hoover was saying. I’ll paraphrase: ‘I am a rational man and I simply fail to understand the irrationality of my countrymen. If you look at this scenario objectively as I have, you would see there is no reason for consumers to be as pessimistic as they are. It is this undue lack of confidence that has caused the economy to tank and fall into depression.’

This is the confidence fairy I was talking about in my Treason post. While Hoover was making his remarks even after the bank runs had begun, it is clear he still believed in the confidence fairy. So, alas, this confidence fairy idea is not new. It was the same justification policy makers used during the Great Depression to rationalise their failure to stop the untold misery which their policy failures caused.

Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union, December 8, 1931

To the Senate and House of Representatives:

It is my duty under the Constitution to transmit to the Congress information on the state of the Union and to recommend for its consideration necessary and expedient measures.

The chief influence affecting the state of the Union during the past year has been the continued world-wide economic disturbance. Our national concern has been to meet the emergencies it has created for us and to lay the foundations for recovery.

If we lift our vision beyond these immediate emergencies we find fundamental national gains even amid depression. In meeting the problems of this difficult period, we have witnessed a remarkable development of the sense of cooperation in the community. For the first time in the history of our major economic depressions there has been a notable absence of public disorders and industrial conflict. Above all there is an enlargement of social and spiritual responsibility among the people. The strains and stresses upon business have resulted in closer application, in saner policies, and in better methods. Public improvements have been carried out on a larger scale than even in normal times. The country is richer in physical property, in newly discovered resources, and in productive capacity than ever before. There has been constant gain in knowledge and education; there has been continuous advance in science and invention; there has been distinct gain in public health. Business depressions have been recurrent in the life of our country and are but transitory. The Nation has emerged from each of them with increased strength and virility because of the enlightenment they have brought, the readjustments and the larger understanding of the realities and obligations of life and work which come from them.



Many undertakings have been organized and forwarded during the past year to meet the new and changing emergencies which have constantly confronted us.

Broadly the community has cooperated to meet the needs of honest distress, and to take such emergency measures as would sustain confidence in our financial system and would cushion the violence of liquidation in industry and commerce, thus giving time for orderly readjustment of costs, inventories, and credits without panic and widespread bankruptcy. These measures have served those purposes and will promote recovery.

In these measures we have striven to mobilize and stimulate private initiative and local and community responsibility. There has been the least possible Government entry into the economic field, and that only in temporary and emergency form. Our citizens and our local governments have given a magnificent display of unity and action, initiative and patriotism in solving a multitude of difficulties and in cooperating with the Federal Government.



The major economic forces and weaknesses at home and abroad have now been exposed and can be appraised, and the time is ripe for forward action to expedite our recovery.

Although some of the causes of our depression are due to speculation, inflation of securities and real estate, unsound foreign investments, and mismanagement of financial institutions, yet our self-contained national economy, with its matchless strength and resources, would have enabled us to recover long since but for the continued dislocations, shocks, and setbacks from abroad.

Whatever the causes may be, the vast liquidation and readjustments which have taken place have left us with a large degree of credit paralysis, which together with the situation in our railways and the conditions abroad, are now the outstanding obstacles to recuperation. If we can put our financial resources to work and can ameliorate the financial situation in the railways, I am confident we can make a large measure of recovery independent of the rest of the world. A strong America is the highest contribution to world stability.

One phase of the credit situation is indicated in the banks. During the past year banks, representing 3 per cent of our total deposits have been closed. A large part of these failures have been caused by withdrawals for hoarding, as distinguished from the failures early in the depression where weakness due to mismanagement was the larger cause of failure. Despite their closing, many of them will pay in full. Although such withdrawals have practically ceased, yet $1,100,000,000 of currency was previously withdrawn which has still to return to circulation. This represents a large reduction of the ability of our banks to extend credit which would otherwise fertilize industry and agriculture. Furthermore, many of our bankers, in order to prepare themselves to meet possible withdrawals, have felt compelled to call in loans, to refuse new credits, and to realize upon securities, which in turn has demoralized the markets. The paralysis has been further augmented by the steady increase in recent years of the proportion of bank assets invested in long-term securities, such as mortgages and bonds. These securities tend to lose their liquidity in depression or temporarily to fall in value so that the ability of the banks to meet the shock of sudden withdrawal is greatly lessened and the restriction of all kinds of credit is thereby increased. The continuing credit paralysis has operated to accentuate the deflation and liquidation of commodities, real estate, and securities below any reasonable basis of values.

All of this tends to stifle business, especially the smaller units, and finally expresses itself in further depression of prices and values, in restriction on new enterprise, and in increased unemployment.

The situation largely arises from an unjustified lack of confidence. We have enormous volumes of idle money in the banks and in hoarding. We do not require more money or working capital–we need to put what we have to work.

The fundamental difficulties which have brought about financial strains in foreign countries do not exist in the United States. No external drain on our resources can threaten our position, because the balance of international payments is in our favor; we owe less to foreign countries than they owe to us; our industries are efficiently organized; our currency and bank deposits are protected by the greatest gold reserve in history.

Our first step toward recovery is to reestablish confidence and thus restore the flow of credit which is the very basis of our economic life. We must put some steel beams in the foundations of our credit structure. It is our duty to apply the full strength of our Government not only to the immediate phases, but to provide security against shocks and the repetition of the weaknesses which have been proven.



The White House,

December 8, 1931.


  1. Max says

    When the authorities are at pains to reassure the public that “the system is fundamentally sound”, etc. – you know it’s time to panic.

    1. David Lazarus says

      Agreed, it is a clear sign that something is wrong. Though they never really cleared the mess in 2007/2008. Obama came in with the expectation of FDR and every day looks more and more like Hoover.

  2. fresno dan says

    “Even taking into account the many financial pressures they face, households seem exceptionally cautious”


    I guess I shouldn’t be surprized, coming from Mr. “subprime is contained”

    Instead of having armchair psychologists run the Fed, how about someone who understands that giving money to the stupid and venal only makes one poorer.

  3. Dan says

    Most interesting thing I’ve read in a while. Quite frightening the striking similarity between Hoover/W/Bernanke/Obama. The problem is a president is a reflection of the views within the political structure, they can’t shake things up too much until people are shaken up.

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