The coming collapse of the municipal bond market

Why aren’t more municipal bonds being downgraded by the ratings agencies Fitch, Moody’s and S&P?  If you look at sovereign debt in revenue-constrained countries like Greece, Portugal or Ireland, the ratings agencies are issuing warnings. 

But, states and municipalities are suffering from the same revenue constraints. Tax revenues have plunged. Governments have shut down services to save cash. And they have cut staff. There are dozens of articles in the national press daily detailing the difficulties municipalities, cities and states are having.

You wouldn’t know that if you looked at the charts of some of the major municipal bond funds. Take a look at Nuveen Municipal Value Fund (NUV) for example.  It bottomed in December last year. Now, 11 months later it is up 31%. How about BlackRock’s MuniHoldings Insured Investment Fund (MFL). It bottomed in December as well. But is up over 70% since then. Pretty nice return. But, I don’t think it can last.

California’s summer struggles made it is the poster child of the distress in the finances of US states and municipalities. But, there are many states, cities and municipalities on the brink. That’s why I found the excerpt from the post “The Coming Collapse of the Municipal Bond Market” at Phillip Greenspun’s blog over at Harvard Law School interesting. Note the highlighted sections

A money manager friend showed me an interesting research report by Frederick J. Sheehan titled “Dark Vision: The Coming Collapse of the Municipal Bond Market. This is a product of and available only to subscribers, but I will summarize it here.

Sheehan starts off by noting that a lack of panic by the ratings and government agencies does not indicate health for a financial market. He cites the fact that the Fed did not anticipate how bad the subprime collapse was likely to be and obviously the Moody’s and Standard and Poor’s ratings were ridiculous.

Sheehan notes that “spending is rising and revenue is collapsing” for all levels of government. Pension fund losses will require governments to double their contributions to pension plans (see my blog posting on public employee pensions). Spending is rising, e.g., in New York City from an average of $65,401 in compensation per public employee in 2000 to $106,743 in 2009. The number of full-time employees in NYC grew as well, despite falling school enrollment. The number of state and local government workers grew from 4 million in 1955 to 20 million in 2008 (5x growth, against less than 2X growth in U.S. population). Those workers receive an average of 43 percent more pay and benefits than a private sector worker.

Municipalities dealt with the separation between taxes and expenses by borrowing. In the mid-1990s, states and cities were retiring as much debt as they were incurring. During the 2000s, though, they borrowed about $150 billion per year in aggregate, peaking at $215 billion in 2007 by which time $2.7 trillion in debt was outstanding, more than two years’ worth of tax receipts.

Barring some sort of miraculous boom in the economy and pension fund investment returns, state and local governments are headed for insolvency and default. This means that valuing a municipal bond becomes a matter for a legal expert rather than an accountant. Even for the legal expert, it is apparently tough to predict what will happen. Let’s start with the Wikipedia article on Chapter 9 bankruptcy: “Previous to the creation of Chapter 9 bankruptcy the only remedy when a municipality was unable to pay its creditors was for the creditors to pursue an action of mandamus, and compel the municipality to raise taxes. During the Great Depression this approach proved impossible so in 1934 the Bankruptcy Act was amended to extend to municipalities.”

Without bankruptcy protection, a city that couldn’t pay bondholders would be forced to raise taxes until it could. This happened to West Palm Beach, Florida in the Depression and property tax rates rose to 42.5 percent of assessed value. Potentially bondholders might demand that the city hand over real estate to satisfy its debts. With bankruptcy protection, it is unclear what happens. Vallejo, California went bankrupt 18 months ago and their obligations have not yet been resolved (story). If courts allow municipalities to walk away from debt they’ll have every incentive to declare bankruptcy and start afresh. There are no shareholders in a municipality to wipe out and therefore the only negative consequence of a bankruptcy filing would possibly be having to pay higher interest rates for future borrowing. If on the other hand, governments are not allowed to walk away from many of their obligations, they will simply run out of cash. Are bondholders senior to pension obligations or not? It may be up to the individual judge. This is “uncharted territory for investors” as my money manager put it (he does not buy U.S. muni bonds).

Municipal bonds are still perceived as almost risk-free by most investors and consequently offer a low yield, according to Sheehan. He points out that if the municipalities don’t default, the investor gets only a slightly better return than in Treasuries. Why take the risk if you’re not getting paid for it?

This ends my summary of Sheehan’s report. My own opinion is that the main lesson of subprime is that an investor cannot rely on the ratings agencies or the government to protect his or her interests.  The never-employed guy in Cleveland with the house in a crummy neighborhood and no down payment? The risk that he would never make a payment should have been apparent to any investor who dug underneath the asset-backed security. Similarly, an investor in muni bonds can look at the municipality. Does the state have a shrinking population, high public employee salaries, and a big pension obligation overhang from when the population was larger? They probably will eventually default. And if an insurance company was dumb enough to insure the bonds, they’ll probably be bankrupt too.

If you’re waiting until the ratings agencies give you a heads up, thinking this will happen before these problems get reflected in lower muni bond prices, you better think again.

  1. Anonymous says

    Edward, do you have any ideas on how to capitalize on this theme by shorting a muni bond index, and what indexes would you focus on in this space? I read the report and thought it was pretty good. Thanks.

    1. Edward Harrison says

      My general take here is not so much one of shorting an index (as I don’t give specific investment advice) but of being aware of what you have in your portfolio.

      For example, are the munis in your portfolio general revenue bonds or ones secured with income streams from specific projects? And what does that mean about likely cash flow in a period of distress?

      As I see it, not all bonds are equal and that should lead to a relative value play if and when muni distress occurs.

  2. barryschaeffer says


    I’ve seen this public pension collision coming for some time. Is there anything that the rest of us (who aren’t planning on a fat public pension) can do to protect ourselves from being devoured buy it?

    For example, any way to find out if any states have laws that enable state and local governments to change pension payouts to reflect realistic investment returns? The Legislature here in Washington State just chose to ignore the recent report from their analyst that they can’t expect to get 8% on their capital, so I don’t see good things on that front.

    Got any ideas about

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